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 Dr.Shreen, Lab Sheet #1 - 5\2\2012 "Corrected by dina al mifleh"

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Majed Sharayha



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Join date : 2011-08-23
Age : 26

PostSubject: Dr.Shreen, Lab Sheet #1 - 522012 "Corrected by dina al mifleh"   Fri Feb 10, 2012 12:32 am

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Anatomy lab #1

The cranium (skull) have 5 aspects:
1-Norma frontalis (anterior aspect)
2-Norma verticalis (superior aspect)
3-Norma occipitalis (posterior aspect)
4-Norma lateralis ( latral aspect)
5-Norma basalis interna (inferior aspect (inside the skull))
6-norma basalis externa (inferior aspect(outside the skull))

Norma verticalis:-
A- From superior view it consist of 4 bones :-
1- Frontal bone (from anterior)
2- Two parietal bones (from superior)
3- Occipital bone (from posterior)

B-These 4 bones joint togother by fibrous joint call suture:
There are 3 sutures:-
1-coronal it is between frontal and 2 parietal bones and divides the skull into anterior and posterior aspect.
2-saggital it is between2 parietal bones and divides the skull into left and right aspect.
3-lampdoid it is between 2 parietal and occipital bone.


C- Points, where sutures meet:
1-bregma it is a point where sagittal suture joint with coronal.
But in new born we found this point like membrane It is called anterior fontanel and it is lies between to frontal bones in front and 2 parietal bones behind.
It is rhomboid in shape, it’s an anterio-posterior breadth of 3 fingers and complete closure happens at 1.5 years
Function:
- Development and growth of the brain.
-it’s help in fetal head molding (over lab) during delivery .
2-lambda it is a point which located at the junction of sagittal and lambdoid suture
In new born this point it’s triangular membrane, called posterior fontanel it is lie between 2 parietal and occipital bone and complete closure happens at 6 month
.3- Two foramina:
Located in the parietal bone so called parietal foramina transmitting emissary veins which allow for communication between the veins inside the skull and outside the skull.

Norma frontalis:
A- the bone of the face (facial skeleton):
1-the forehead consist of frontal bone.
From midline to the lateral side:
2-the nose have tow part one bony and one cartilage…the bony part have tow nasal bone one on the left and one on the right.
3-maxilla bone: There is 2 process one on the right of the maxilla bone and one on the left and they joint together to make the upper jaw, called alveolar process (because it is related to the teeth)
4-zygomatic bone makes the prominence of the check

.

Note : Norma frontalis has three major openings : two orbit openings and one nasal opening.

B- The suture :-
1-internasal suture (between two nasal bone)
2-frontonasal suture (where the frontal bone is joint with two nasal bone)

c- point:
When the internasal suture and frontonasal suture joint together at Nasion point.
Just above the nasion we found elevation called Glabella formed by the frontal air sinuses.
On both side of glabella there are arches called supracilliary arches on which eyebrows are found.
To differentiate between a male and a female skull, the female arches are smoother and their curvature is less.
Male arches show a more prominent curvature.

Orbit openings:-
-on superior margin we found notch called supraorbital notch (for passage of supraorbital nerve and artery).
-on inferior part of orbit we found foramina called infraorbital foramina (located in the maxilla).


Norma occipitalis:
A-Formed by:
1- occipital bone (mainly)
2- part of 2 parietal bones
3- two mastoid process


B-Sutures in the norma occipitalis:
1-lamboid sutures (between parietal and occipital bones).
2-occipitomastoid suture (between the occipital and mastoid bones).

C-Point:
When lambdoid, occipitomastoid and parietomastoid sutures join together there is a point formed there called the Asterion.
Asterion used to be the posteriolateral fontenal in newborns. It has a similar function to the anterior and posterior fontenals and it closes at around 3-6 months afterbirth.

More feature…
On occipital bone from outside there's a protuberance called the external occipital protuberance.
From the external occipital protuberance to the foramen magnum is the external occipital crest .
Superior nuchal line is found on line with the external occipital protuberance.
Inferior nuchal line is below the superior nuchal line.
The highest nuchal line is an imaginary line found above the superior nuchal line. It gives the origin to the posterior bellies of occipito – frontalis muscle and marks the end of the scalp
Tears secreted by lacrimal gland in the superolateral angle of the bony orbit, then its pass through canals to the nasolacrimal duct, which connected the orbit and the nose.
The nasolacrimal duct lies on the nasolacrimal groove (has an anterior and posterior borders) on the medial side of the bony orbit.



Done by:-Majdolin shahin
Corrected by: - Dina Al- Mefleh
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Dr.Shreen, Lab Sheet #1 - 5\2\2012 "Corrected by dina al mifleh"
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